Interpretive park rangers, also commonly referred to as cultural park rangers, are responsible for providing an enlightening experience to the visitors of city, state, or nationally designated parks.
Freeman Tilden, the father of heritage interpretation, referred to interpretation as “an art which combines many arts, the chief aim of which is not instruction but provocation.” He went on to say that interpretation must relate to the “personality of experience of the visitor.”
Therefore, interpretive and cultural park rangers, through interpretation, help visitors understand and gain an appreciation, which therefore advances a park’s mission of protection. In other words, interpretation allows visitors to see the relevance in the message and importance of the parks they visit. This may include providing interpretive services for:
- Historic sites
- Historic monuments
- Wildlife refuges
- Environmental havens
- Archeologically significant sites
- Recreational areas
To advance the mission of the state or national park in which they work, interpretive park rangers must be able to convey the relevancy and importance of park stories and resources to visitors. Beyond the park’s borders, interpretive park rangers must also get the message of the park out to the general public by exploring methods that reach a number of demographics so as to build an active community of park goers in the coming years.
The Job Duties and Responsibilities of Interpretive and Cultural Park Rangers
Although interpretation duties may vary from one park to the next, depending on the sites, activities, and significance of the park and its resources, interpretive and cultural park rangers, whether through the National Park Service (NPS) or through state parks departments, are responsible for providing visitor services. This often includes planning and presenting programs in a variety of contexts.
Therefore, job duties often include:
- Answering phone calls, providing visitors with park maps and vacation planners, and providing visitors with specific information
- Helping visitors prepare for their park visits at park borders, park entrance stations, and at park visitor centers
- Providing visitors with information about the park’s regulations and rules, and helping them obtain permits for fishing, boating, and camping, among others
- Designing, planning, and providing guided walks, talks and programs
- Designing, planning, and providing audiovisual presentations
- Designing and planning indoor exhibits on the park’s wildlife, human history, and geology
- Designing and planning outdoor exhibits that provide safety and regulatory information to visitors
- Designing, planning, and providing educational programs for schools, teachers, and community groups
- Designing, planning, and producing publications to visitors, specific groups, and the general public
- Designing, planning and implementing special initiatives and outreach programs
Interpretive and Cultural Park Ranger Jobs at the National Park Service
The park rangers of the National Park Service (NPS) may be protective park rangers, general park rangers, or cultural/interpretation park rangers. There are three, distinct levels within the subcategory of cultural/interpretation park rangers:
Entry Level Park Ranger Interpreter – Entry-level park ranger interpreters with the NPS are responsible for serving as a source of information at kiosks, reception desks, and visitor centers. They are also stationed at various sites throughout the park. Their interpretive duties increase as they learn to develop and deliver interpretive talks.
Developmental Park Ranger Interpreter – NPS developmental park ranger interpreters take their initial competencies in the field of interpretation and use them to address organized educational groups, and present demonstrations or illustrated programs.
Full Performance Park Ranger Interpreter – Full-performance park ranger interpreters conduct advanced work in interpretive media and interpretive planning and build relationships with partner organizations. Full-performance park ranger interpreters also engage in coaching, peer-auditing, and mentoring.
Interpretive and Cultural Park Rangers at State Parks Departments
A number of states employ interpretive and cultural park rangers in addition to general and/or protective park rangers, while others state require that their general park rangers engage in interpretive activities.
California, for example, employs interpretive specialists who are responsible for encouraging good conservation practices and explaining information concerning interpretive programs that focus on natural and human history. The work of these interpretive park ranger specialists includes:
- Preparing information for exhibits on natural, social and cultural history
- Planning, organizing and conducting educational walks, tours and campfire programs
- Planning and conducting group talks on the geological, social, and cultural history of the park
- Promoting conservation education
- Maintaining exhibits and self-guided interpretive trails
- Preparing audiovisual materials, including photographs, color slides and other illustrative materials
- Repairing and updating materials for scientific and historic publications
- Explaining rules and regulations to visitors
Education, Degree and Training Requirements for Interpretive and Cultural Park Rangers
The first step to becoming an interpretive park ranger typically begins with completing a formal degree program from an accredited college or university in a field related to this profession. As such, common majors for individuals interested in becoming an interpretive park ranger are usually based in the natural sciences or earth sciences. Typical degree programs include:
- Wildlife management
- Resource management
- Wildlife conservation management
Individuals who want to become interpretive park rangers with the National Park Service can meet minimum employment requirements through either related experience or through the completion of a four-year degree from an accredited college or university in one of the following areas of study:
- Natural resource management
- Natural sciences
- Earth sciences
- Park and recreation management
- Law enforcement/police science
- Social sciences
- Museum sciences
- Business administration
- Public administration
- Behavioral science
Candidates with the NPS may also qualify if they possess another four-year degree, provided they have completed at least 24 semester credit hours in one or more of the above-mentioned areas of study.
Because interpretive park rangers must have a solid, working knowledge of the park, its wildlife, its environment, and its history, among others, they are typically required to attend park-specific training following the completion of standard park ranger training. Within the NPS, for example, interpretive park rangers must complete training through the NPS Interpretation and Education Career Academy.